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Chords 2, 7th-Chords in Major and Minor.

7th-Chords are also part of tertian harmony; harmony built on thirds.  The 7th-chord is a triad with another 3rd stacked on top of it, making the 7th-chord a 4 note chord.  As the 3rd and the 5th are named through their relationship with the root, so is the 7th above the root (fig. 1).

Fig. 1.

seventh chord

There are 6 types of 7th-chords: Dominant, Major, Minor, Half Diminished, Diminished, and Minor / Major.  As with the triads, the different 7th-chords are identified through the intervallic relationship between the notes. The easiest way to identify the different 7th-chords is to first identify the triad, and then the 7th above the root.

  • Major 7th-chord:

     Major triad with a M7 above the root.
  • Dominant 7th-chord:

     Major triad with a m7 above the root.
  • Minor 7th-chord:

     Minor triad with a m7 above the root.
  • Half diminished 7th-chord:

     Diminished triad with a m7 above the root.
  • Diminished 7th-chord:

     Dimonished triad with a d7 above the root.
  • Minor/Major 7th-chord:

     Minor triad with a M7 above the root.

The different types of 7th-chords, in the order listed above.

Diatonic seventh chords types

Diatonic 7th Chords, Major Mode

As with the triads, if only diatonic notes are used, there are only specific 7th-chords possible.  To correctly label a 7th-chord, add a 7 to the right of the Roman numeral (V7, ii7, etc.).  For the alphabetical chord symbols, a 7 is also included, but the type of 7th also has to be included.  For dominant 7th chords, add a 7 (G7),  for major 7th-chords add maj7 (Cmaj7),  for minor 7th chords add a 7 (Dmi7), for half diminished chords add degree sign with a slash through it an a 7 (B7), or use the label mi7 flat 5,  for diminished 7th-chords add a degree sign and a 7 (Bo7) and for Minor/Major 7th-chords add mi/maj7, (Emi/maj7).  Once again, there are many different ways to label chords,  this is just one of many.  As with the diatonic triads, 7th-chords are also lableled with the scaledegree the root is on.  If the root is on sd. 5, it is a dominant 7th-chord, if it is on sd, 2, it is a supertonic 7th-chord, etc.

Diatonic 7-th-chords in major mode.

Diatonic seventh chords major

Diatonic 7th Chords. Minor Mode

As with the triads, there are many more possible chords since there are three different scales to pick notes from.
Below is all possible seventh chords including the III+7 which is rarely used at all.

All diatonic seventh chords in minor

Diatonic 7th-chords in minor mode.

Below you find the most commonly used 7th chords in minor mode.

Diatonic seventh chords in minor
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